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Roger Bakeman

Emeritus, Professor    

Ph.D, University of Texas at Austin, 1973


Social development of infants and toddlers, observational methodology and data analysis


Running throughout my work is a concern with social interaction: how it is observed, how it is described, and how it is analyzed.

With Lauren B. Adamson I have observed and continue to observe infants and toddlers interacting with their mothers to study how such infants communicate—and how joint attention is transformed—before and as formal language is acquired in typically developing toddlers and toddlers with autism and Down Syndrome.

With Vicenç Quera (University of Barcelona, Spain) I have written a book, Sequential Anaysis and Observational Methods for the Behavioral Sciences (Fall 2011, see right) as well as articles, an earlier book, and computer programs that describe general approaches and specific analytic strategies for the sequential analysis of systematic observational data.

And with John M. Gottman (University of Washington) I wrote an earlier book (1997) explaining procedural and analytic strategies for observational studies in general.

I have also worked with a number of colleagues, analyzing archives of interview, self-report, medical, and other data, primarily related to health concerns, including AIDS: with John Peterson (GSU) analyzing effects of stress, coping, HIV status, psychosocial resources, and depressive mood in African American gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men; with Michael Compton (formerly Emory School of Medicine; now Lenox Hill Hospital, North Shore–LIJ Health System, NY) analyzing effects of mental health awareness training (CIT, crisis intervention team) on police officers; with Kim Bard (formerly Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Atlanta; now University of Portsmouth, UK) analyzing emotional engagement and social cognition in young chimpanzees; with Jin Li (Brown University) analyzing how European American and Taiwanese mothers talk to their children about learning; and with Kim Oller (University of Memphis and Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research, Altenberg, Austria) analyzing functional flexibility of infant vocalization and the emergence of language.

Finally, with Josephine V. Brown (GSU, emeritus) I have observed preterm and fullterm infants and mothers interacting and have studied effects of early interaction patterns on their subsequent development.

For additional details, see my curricululm vitae.


Representative Recent Publications


Bakeman, R., & Quera, V. (2012). Behavioral observation. In H. Cooper (Ed.-in-Chief), P. Camic, D. Long, A. Panter, D. Rindskopf, & K. J. Sher (Assoc. Eds.), APA handbooks in psychology: Vol. 1. APA handbook of research methods in psychology: Psychological research: Foundations, planning, methods, and psychometrics.  Washington, DC:  American Psychological Association.

Bakeman, R., & Quera, V. (2011). Sequential analysis and observational methods for the behavioral sciences. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Bakeman, R., Quera, V., & Gnisci A. (2009).  Observer agreement for timed-event sequential data:  A comparison of time-based and event-based algorithms.  Behavior Research Methods, 41, 137–147. doi:10.3758/BRM.41.1.137

Bakeman, R. (2006). The practical importance of findings. In K. McCartney, M. R. Burchinal, & K. L. Bub (Eds.), Best Practices in Quantitative Methods for Developmentalists (pp. 127-145). Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 71(3, Serial No. 285).

Bakeman, R. (2005).  Recommended Effect Size Statistics for Repeated Measures Designs.  Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 37, 379-384 .


Furtak, E. M., Bakeman, R., & Ruiz-Primo, M. (in press). Exploring the utility of sequential analysis in studying informal formative assessment practices. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice.

Goodman, S. H., Bakeman, R., McCallum, M., Rouse, M. H., & Thompson, S. F. (in press). Extending models of sensitive parenting of infants to women at risk for perinatal depression. Parenting.

Mendive, S., Lissi, M. R., Bakeman, R., & Reyes, A. (in press). Beyond mother education: Maternal practices as predictors of early literacy development in low-SES Chilean children. Early Education and Development.

Suma, K., Adamson, L. B., Bakeman, R., Robins, D. L., & Abrams, D. N. (in press). After early autism diagnosis: Changes in intervention and parent-child interaction. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.

Warnock F.F., Craig, K. D., Bakeman, R., Castral, T., & Mirlashari, J. (2016). The relationship of maternal prenatal depression or anxiety to maternal caregiving behavior and infant behavior self-regulation during infant heel lance: An ethological time-based study of behavior. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 16, 264. DOI 10.1186/s12884-016-1050-5

Lucychen, J. M, Fossett. B., Bakeman, R., Cheremshynski, C., Miller, L., Lohrmann, S., Binnendyk, L., Khan, S., Chinn, S., Kwon, S., Irvin, L. K. (2016). Transforming parent-child interaction in family routines: Longitudinal analysis with families of children with developmental disabilities. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 3526–3541. doi: 10.1007/s10825-015-0154-2

Adamson, L. B., Bakeman, R., & Brandon, B. (2015). How parents introduce new words to young children: The influence of development and developmental disorders. Infant Behavior and Development, 39, 148–158.

Hirsh-Pasek, K., Adamson, L. B., Bakeman, R., Owen, M. T., Golinkoff, R. M., Pace, A., Yust, P. K. S., & Suma, K. (2015). The contribution of early communication quality to low-income children’s language success. Psychological Science. 26, 1071–1083.

Adamson, L.B., Bakeman, R., Deckner, D. F., & Nelson, P. B. (2014). From interactions to conversations: The development of joint engagement during early childhood. Child Development. 85, 941–955. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12189

Bard, K. A., Bakeman, R., Boysen, S. T., & Leavens, D. A. (2014). Emotional engagements predict and enhance social cognition in young chimpanzees. Developmental Science, 17, 682–696. doi: 10.1111/desc.12145

Compton, M. T., Bakeman, R., Broussard, B., Hankerson-Dyson, D., Husbands, L., Krishan, S., Stewart-Hutto, T., D’Orio, B., Oliva, J. R., Thompson, N. J., & Watson, A. C. (2014). The police-based Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) Model: I. Effects on officers’ knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Psychiatric Services, 65, 517–522. doi: 10.1176/, and II. Effects on level of force and resolution, referral, and arrest. Psychiatric Services, 65, 523–529. doi: 10.1176/

Peterson, J. L., Bakeman, R., Sullivan, P., Millett, G., Rosenberg, E., Salazar, L., Di Clemente, R. J., Cooper, H., Kelley, C. F., Mulligan, M. J., Frew, P., & del Rio, C. (2014). Social discrimination and resiliency are not associated with differences in prevalent HIV infection in black and white men who have sex with men. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 66, 538–543.

Li, J., Fung, H., Bakeman, R., Rae, K., & Wei, W. (2013). How European American and Taiwanese mothers talk to their children about learning: A sequential analysis. Child Development, 85, 1206–1221. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12172

Oller, D. K., Buder, E.H., Ramsdell, H. L., Warlaumont, A. S., & Bakeman, R. (2013). Functional flexibility of infant vocalization and the emergence of language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 6318–6323.

Adamson, L.B., Bakeman, R., Deckner, D. F., & Nelson, P. B. (2012). Rating parent–child interactions: joint engagement, communication dynamics, and shared topics in autism, Down syndrome, and typical development. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 42, 2622–2635. doi 10.1007/s10803-012-1520-1